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30 September 2016

Why batteries are more powerful than Gasoline ?

It's trending now a days that automotive vehicles is propelled by Batteries than gasoline fuel. There are many clear advantages of use batteries. some are listed below..
  • One time investment
  • More economic than gasoline
  • Turbo Charger that helps to charge batteries in few minutes
  • Charging station is available at may points which are few miles away from each other.
  • it provides more comfortable space

One time investment

it is face that most of batteries are costlier. the main reason is that the materials used in batteries. It's Lithium Ion. Which is more costlier than other materials. So its obvious thing that the manufacturing cost is higher of batteries.

economic than gasoline

Now a days  except the Gulf countries gasoline prices are hiked much and much. import and export charges added to its value extra. So it will be difficul to anyone that beat this kind of Mony exchange programme with transportation. On the other hand Batteries are easy to charge with any kind of power sources. Like Renewable  as Solar ., Wind etc. As well as it is more economica than gasoline.

Turbo Charger that helps to charge batteries in few minutes

Recently Tesla invented fastest method to charging batteries. With the use of high Current with supportive cunductors it is possible to charge your batteries in just few minutes. When Turbo charging was invented then it become possible. It's benn used in many appliances like mobile phones to Charge batteries in few minutes.

Charging stations

Cad manufacturers already know the capacity of any batteries that how much it can hold power to propell the engine. So that values make important decision. All bt all these calculations station points will be decided. So that customer wil never feel and problematic situation in any places. Generally Outside of india charging stations are available at Hotels , restaurant, toll bar etc.

 more comfortable space

If we use conventional methid to propell vehicle by engine, it required more space to handle this all messy things. On the other hand Batterues and individual motors only used for main propelling unit. So it provides more comfortable space than other vehicles.

Batterie powered vehicles don't pollutants tge environment. This is most important topic that has more weights than  gasoline. The servicing cost of gasoline engine is too higher than batteries. There is only things that have to change in batterie powered vehicle that to change Wheels and tyres. No any other maintanace cost. that  is tye big point that these all vehicles make unique impression in market to make more clean environment.

20 September 2016

Facts about Tesla and it's gigafactory you should know..!!!

These are some fun facts about Tesla Motors you should know about it
  1. Tesla motor was't the first to share it's patents. Nicola Tesla the scientist invents AC Appliances  and sold them less than 2% of their value 
  2. Tesla motor's is the second oldest among american automaker behind the ford. some how some other companies were not listed as publicly.
  3. Tesla Model S is the first car that receive Motortrend's car of the year award. It's like unforgettable moment for Elon Musk.
  4. only 23% of Tesla's Stock owns by Elon Musk.
  5. Tesla was founded by Martin Eberhard and Mark Tarpenning NOT by ELON MUSK.
  6. Tesla is huge,but not so huge as compared to companies such as FIAT, SUZUKI or ISUZU.
  7. Tesla bets $ 5 billion only on growth to make batteries for 500000 vehicles .
  8. After these all successful year for Tesla but there are only 52 showroom in US and canada,
  9. There are only six parts needed to change for regular maintenance of Tesla model. It includes only four tires and two wipers. LOL,
  10. Tesla is the most shorted stock in Market.

It's worldwide vision of Tesla that will come true in short time that to provide Renewable energy source to the world by the means of solar, Wind OR any other.
This vision is becoming true only because of this Tesla's Gigafactory.

Tesla is one of the famous electric vehicle manufacturer all over the world. So they trying to bring huge amount of electricity among the world to use these electricity to charge electric vehicles. This may be distributed wide on country like as at tool booth, Motel's on highways, long routs between two cities. so it will be beneficial for customer as well as for Tesla. It will make a user friendly environment so people able to use these all facility easily.

Actually among all the car manufactures of Automobile Tesla is the one which consumes a huge amount of Lithium-ion batteries. so this giant factory helps to provide enough battery supply to whole world. The construction works starts at 2014 and planned to complete it before 2017. As planned they wanted to make full range of production within the factory before 2020. The ultimate goal is to increase the production of batteries of lithium-ion  compared to production in the year of 2013.

To make this vision come true Panasonic helps Tesla on this mission. By the use of innovative technologies invented by Panasonic. They also uses reduction of waste strategy on a big economic scale to achieve destination. Significantly use less manufacturing cost on economic scale with the simple optimization of processing unit. They also uses the renewable energy sources to make total energy inventory of zero level.

Same as the name of giant factory comes with the production rate of factory 35GWh. like as giga watt represent the billions. One GWh is equivalent as the generating one billion watts for one hour.

14 September 2016

Upcoming super cars of 2017 and 2018

It's so much interesting thing that car manufacturers from all over the world takes a forward step to make world more closer with the new inventions of automotive technologies. As taking this point in current generation super car is not just enough but if we using hyper car it'll be batter for it.
some cars like this will be available in market as soon as possible such as..

Aston Martin Red Bull hypercar

The car has been announced as a collaboration between Aston Martin and the Red Bull F-1 racing team. It’s expected to have a $3 million price tag and be available as a limited edition. It will go on sale in the year of 2017.

Aston Martin Rapide

The four-door Rapide gets a plug-in electric motor next year.

Ferrari GTC4Lusso

When it decided to freshen its FF four-seat grand tourer, Ferrari renamed it the GTC4Lusso. Rear-wheel steering was added to boost the appeal of a model launched five years ago as a practical ultraluxury sports car aimed at wealthy families. The GTC4Lusso will arrive in U.S. this fall, starting at approximately $300,0000. Along with a more powerful engine and exterior design tweaks aimed at giving it a more streamlined look, Ferrari has integrated the rear-wheel steering into the GTC4Lusso’s four-wheel-drive system to improve high-speed stability and cornering maneuverability. The model has the same 6.3-liter V-12 engine as the FF, but horsepower has been increased by 30 hp to 680 hp.

Aston Martin DBX

The crossover is expected to go on sale in 2020, initially as a plug-in hybrid, followed by gasoline- and electric-powered models. The DBX will be built in a new factory in Wales; several thousand units will be built annually.

Aston Martin Lagonda

The sedan will move upmarket as the most expensive production Aston Martin four-door when it is redesigned in 2020 or 2021. It is expected to use a version of the DB11 platform. Aston Martin is aiming at Rolls-Royce with the Lagonda, but with a more performance-oriented vehicle. The Lagonda also may be assembled in the new Wales factory. 

Aston Martin Vantage

The redesigned coupe and convertible are expected next year. The engine will be a twin-turbocharged, 4.0-liter V-8 from Mercedes-Benz’s AMG high-performance arm. The Vantage is expected to have styling similar to the larger DB11.

Aston Martin DB11

A Volante, Aston’s designation for convertible, is expected in 2017.

Bentley Continental GTC

All three Continental models — the GT coupe, GTC convertible and Flying Spur sedan — will be redesigned and move to a Volkswagen Group platform shared with the Porsche Panamera. The redesigned GT coupe and GTC convertible are expected next year, followed by the Flying Spur sedan in 2018.

Bentley Bentayga

 A coupelike variant is being considered. There are reports that it would be smaller than the Bentayga.  

Bentley Continental Flying Spur

All three Continental models — the GT coupe, GTC convertible and Flying Spur sedan — will be redesigned and move to a Volkswagen Group platform shared with the Porsche Panamera. The redesigned GT coupe and GTC convertible are expected next year, followed by the Flying Spur sedan in 2018.

Bentley Sports car

A new two-seat coupe smaller and lower than the Continental GT is not yet approved. The sports car would be similar to the EXP 10 Speed 6 concept shown in 2015 at the Geneva auto show. If approved, it could go on sale in two years.

Bentley Mulsanne

The Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase goes on sale in the United States in the first quarter of 2017. The front end has been modified, and the Mulsanne and Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase get semiautonomous features including forward-collision warning and mitigation, adaptive cruise control and blind-spot warning, as well as improved Wi-Fi and entertainment features that allow use of Apple CarPlay and Android Auto.

Bentley Continental GT

All three Continental models — the GT coupe, GTC convertible and Flying Spur sedan — will be redesigned and move to a Volkswagen Group platform shared with the Porsche Panamera. The redesigned GT coupe and GTC convertible are expected next year, followed by the Flying Spur sedan in 2018.

Ferrari 488 GTB

 The replacement for the 458 Italia coupe arrives in the U.S. this fall, starting at $252,800. In late 2017 or early 2018, Ferrari could add the Speciale variant, which will be more powerful and lighter than the standard model, which is equipped with a new twin-turbo 3.9-liter V-8 engine delivering 661 hp.

Ferrari Dino

Ferrari still is considering adding a V-6 model that will produce 500 hp, but the new model does not yet have a fixed time frame or name. The model, dubbed Dino in Italy, refers to one of Ferrari’s most iconic names that was used on V-6 and V-8-powered entry-level models in the ’60s and ’70s.

Ferrari California T

Ferrari’s 2+2 convertible will be re-engineered in late 2017 or early 2018 and will continue to offer a twin-turbo V-8 engine.

Ferrari F12 Berlinetta

The V-12-powered two-seater will be freshened in 2017, keeping a normally aspirated engine expected to deliver over 700 hp. Last fall, Ferrari unveiled a limited-edition F12 variant called the F12TDF, as an homage to the Tour de France, a famous endurance race on public roads held in the 1950s and ’60s. The company built 799 units of the TDF, whose engine output had topped to 769 hp.

Maserati GranTurismo

Production of the current GranTurismo coupe and convertible was extended to the end of 2017, possibly early 2018. Thus a redesign of the four-seat coupe won’t go on sale before the second half of 2018.The GranTurismo convertible could be redesigned a year later.

Lamborghini Centenario

The limited-edition Centenario models will be produced and restricted to a run of 40 units — 20 coupes and 20 convertibles. The cars mark the 100-year anniversary of founder Ferruccio Lamborghini’s birth. They are based on the midengine Aventador coupe and powered by a 6.5-liter V-12 engine with horsepower upgraded to 770 from 690. The $2 million coupe goes on sale in the fourth quarter, and the $2.3 million roadster arrives in 2017.

Lamborghini Urus

Lamborghini previewed its new SUV with the Urus concept, shown in Pebble Beach, California. Lamborghini’s first crossover will go on sale in 2018. It will use the Audi Q7 platform and possibly the Huracan’s V-10 gasoline engine.

Types of control switches used in Automobile


There are three basic types of control switches. These are low, dual and high pressure switches. Pressure sensors and Trinary switch are also used.

Pressure switching devices : 

Low pressure switch   

Reacts to the pressure in the low side (suction side) of the system, generally the accumulator and disengages the compressor clutch if the pressure drops below approximately 1.5 bar.On an FOV system the low pressure switch and cycling switch are often the same device.

Dual pressure – high pressure switch and condenser fan switch

Two pressure-sensitive switches are contained in the high pressure switch. One of these switches acts as a safety switch to prevent excessive system pressure.The second switch switches the condenser auxiliary fan on to its second setting at approximately 20.7 bar and off again at 17.2 bar.This switching process improves the performance of the system in cases of excessive heat.

High pressure switch

A single normally closed pressure switch de-energises the compressor if excessive high pressure exists within the A/C system, approximately 30–35 bar. The switch is normally positioned in the high side of the system.

Trinary switch       

Three pressure sensitive switches are integrated into a trinary switch. A low pressure switch which creates an open circuit thus removing the current flowing to the compressor if the system pressure drops below approximately 1.4 bar. This could be caused by a refrigerant leak or natural discharge over a number of years.A high pressure switch operates at a pressure of approximately 30 bar which again removes the A/C compressor’s current in the event of a system blockage anywhere in the system.The third switch is used for high speed operation of the condenser fan aiding the removal of heat. This operates at approximately 18 bar. The switch is positioned on the high pressure side on TXV controlled systems.If FOV is used then a cycling switch is incorporated into the low side with a dual pressure switch on the high side. Modern A/C systems are replacing switches with a single pressure sensor.

 Pressure sensors   

The pressure sensor contains two metal plated ceramic discs mounted in close proximity. The disc located closest to the pressure connection is thinner and bends when subjected to pressure.By this means, capacitance between the metal plating of the discs is changed based on the pressure. A circuit integrated in the sensor converts the capacitance to an analogue voltage.

13 September 2016

Different types of starting motors used in Automobiles


This system uses a brake fluid (Preferably ethylene glycol) to transfer the pressure applied by the operator from the controlling unit to the actual brake mechanism, which is usually at or near the wheel of the vehicle. Most vehicles in India prefer to have drum brakes on rear wheels while disk brakes on the front wheels attached to the hydraulic controlling unit.

In order to produce the combustible mixture, Compression stroke and a form of ignition the minimum starting speed must be achieved. This is where the electric starter comes in. It is not possible to view the starter as an isolated component within the vehicle electrical system. The battery in particular is of prime importance. Another particularly important consideration in relation to engine starting requirements is the starting limit temperature. As temperature decreases, starter torque also decreases and the torque required cranking the engine to its minimum speed increases.


Inertia starters   

            In all standard motor vehicle applications it is necessary to connect the starter to the engine ring gear only during the starting phase
  • The inertia type of starter motor is a four-pole, four-brush machine and is used on small to medium-sized petrol engine vehicles
  • It is capable of producing 9.6 Nm with a current draw of 350 A.
  • It has a face-type commutator and axially aligned brush gear. 
  • The fields are wave wound and are earthed to the starter yoke.
  • The starter engages with the flywheel ring gear by means of a small pinion.


  • When the starter is operated, via a remote relay, the armature will cause the sleeve to rotate inside the pinion.
  • The pinion remains still due to its inertia and, because of the screwed sleeve rotating inside it; the pinion is moved to mesh with the ring gear.
  • When the engine fires and runs under its own power, the pinion is driven faster than the armature shaft. This causes the pinion to be screwed back along the sleeve and out of engagement with the flywheel.
  • In some applications the pinion tends to fall out of mesh when cranking due to the engine almost, but not quite, running.

Pre-engaged starters

  • Pre-engaged starters are fitted to the majority of vehicles in use today.
  • They provide a positive engagement with the ring gear, as full power is not applied until the pinion is fully in mesh.
  • They prevent premature ejection as the pinion is held into mesh by the action of a solenoid.
  • A one-way clutch is incorporated into the pinion to prevent the starter motor being driven by the engine.

Permanent magnet starters

  • The principle of operation is similar in most respects to the conventional pre-engaged starter motor.
  • The main difference is the replacement of field windings and pole shoes with high quality permanent magnets.
  • The reduction in weight is in the region of 15% and the diameter of the yoke can be reduced by a similar factor.
  • Permanent magnets provide constant excitation and it would be reasonable to expect the speed and torque characteristic to be constant.
  • However, due to the fall in battery voltage under load and the low resistance of the armature windings, the characteristic is comparable to series wound motors.

Heavy vehicle starters

            The types of starter that are available for heavy duty applications are many and are different as the applications they serve.
  • In general, higher voltages are used, which may be up to 110 V, and two starters may even run in parallel for very high power and torque requirements.
  • Large road vehicles are normally 24 V and employ a wide range of starters. In some cases the design is simply a large and heavy duty version of the pre-engaged type.

Automatic transmission and Torque converter


A torque converter is the component that makes automatic operation possible. An automatic gearbox contains special devices that automatically provide various gear ratios as they are needed.


  • Most automatic gearboxes have three or four forward gears and one reverse gear. Instead of a gearstick, the driver moves a lever called a selector.
  • Some automatic gearboxes have selector positions for park, neutral, reverse, drive, 2 and 1 (or 3, 2 and 1 in some cases).
  • Some more sophisticated types with electronic control just have driven, park and reverse positions.
  • The fluid flywheel or torque converter is the component that makes automatic operation possible.
  • The engine will only start if the selector is in either the park or neutral position. In park, the drive shaft is locked so that the drive wheels cannot move.
  • It is also now common, when the engine is running, to only be able to move the selector out of park if you are pressing the brake pedal.
  • This is a very good safety feature as it prevents sudden, uncontrolled movement of the vehicle.

Fluid Flywheel principle

  • A fluid flywheel consists of an impeller and turbine, which are immersed in oil.
  • They transmit drive from the engine to the gearbox.
  • The engine-driven impeller faces the turbine, which is connected to the gearbox.
  • Each of the parts, which are bowl-shaped, contains a number of vanes.
  • They are both a little like half of a hollowed out orange facing each other. When the engine is running at idle speed oil is flung from the impeller into the turbine, but not with enough force to turn the turbine.
  • As engine speed increases so does the energy of the oil.
  • This increasing force begins to move the turbine and hence the vehicle.
  • The oil gives up its energy to the turbine and then recirculates into the impeller at the centre, starting the cycle over again.
  • As the vehicle accelerates the difference in speed between the impeller and turbine reduces until the slip is about 2%.
  • A good analogy for a fluid flywheel that you can try for yourself is to place two desktop-type cooling fans facing each other. Switch one on (the impeller) and the air it blows will drive the blades of the other (the turbine).
  • The torque converter delivers power from the engine to the gearbox like a basic fluid flywheel, but also increases the torque when the car begins to move.
  • Similar to a fluid flywheel, the torque converter resembles a large doughnut sliced in half. One half, called the pump impeller, is bolted to the drive plate or flywheel. The other half, called the turbine, is connected to the gearbox input shaft.

11 September 2016

Spark ignition advance Mechanism


            The purpose of spark advance mechanism is to assure that under every condition of engine operation, ignition takes place at the most favorable instant in time i.e. most favorable from a standpoint of engine power, fuel economy and minimum exhaust dilution. By means of these mechanisms the advance angle is accurately set so that ignition occurs before TDC point of the piston. The engine speed and the engine load are the control quantities required for the automatic adjustment of the ignition timing. Most of the engines are fitted with mechanisms which are integral with the distributor and automatically regulate the optimum spark advance to account for change of speed and load.

Ignition advance basics:

Ignition advance is the condition when ignition of fuel occurs earlier than the correct ignition timing. Ignition of mixture takes place near the end of compression stroke.If the ignition is advanced it means fuel-air mixture will burn too early before the end of compression stroke. In this case, the crank and connecting rod will have to push the piston in order to compress the gases (for completing the compression stroke). In this situation, the force applied on piston by the connecting rod in upward direction may not be able to overcome the downward force acting on piston.This downward force acting on the piston is due to enormous pressure generated by the combustion of fuel. Under this condition, the engine may stop or stall.Spark advance may also cause the fuel to explode suddenly under certain operating conditions.


Two automatic advance mechanisms are used for spark advance and retard in engines depending on engine speed and other operating conditions:

(a) Centrifugal spark advance mechanism.

(b) Vacuum spark advance mechanism.

Ignition timing is first set manually. After this these mechanisms are used to modify it suitably.


This mechanism consists of two fly weights, a base plate, cam and a spring. Fly weights are also called advance weights. The base plate is fixed to the drive shaft.The fly weights are rotated by distributor drive shaft through the base plate. The weights are pivoted on the base plate and also attached to the cam with the help of springs. The cam is also joined with the distributor shaft through springs, flywheel and plate. If engine speed increases, the fly weights are displaced out radially due to centrifugal force acting on it. Movement of weights causes the ignition advance (spark advance). At low speeds there is no advance while it is full advance of very high speeds.


Vacuum advance mechanism consists of a diaphragm whose movement automatically advances and retards the ignition depending upon engine speed and other operating conditions.On side of diaphragm is connected to the induction manifold and other side is connected to atmosphere. (Induction manifold is at lower pressure than atmospheric and this pressure depends upon engine speed). The diaphragm is connected to the distributor through a linkage.As engine speed increases the pressure on one side of diaphragm decreases. This change in pressure controls the movement of diaphragm which ultimately controls the ignition timings. At normal position of diaphragm the ignition timing is set at fully retarded position. As engine speed increases the ignition timings are advanced.


Basic of Tire Design in Automobile


Although tires are often taken for granted, they contribute greatly to the ride and steering quality of a vehicle. Tires contribute to directional stability of the vehicle and must absorb all the stresses of accelerating, braking, and centrifugal force in turns. Tire design varies depending on the operating conditions and the load capacity of the tire.

Tire Design  

Tire construction varies depending on the manufacturer and the type of tire. A typical modern tire contains these components:

1. Bead wire, 
2. Bead filler, 
3. Liner, 
4. Steel reinforcement in the sidewall, 
5. Sidewall with hard side compound
6. Rayon carcass plies, 
7. Steel belts, 
8. Joint less belt cover,  
9. Hard under tread compound,  
10. Hard high-grip tread compound

Tires designed for improved steering  

Tire design varies depending on the operating conditions and the load capacity of the tire.A tire designed for improved steering and handling characteristics has nylon bead reinforcement and a hard bead filler with a slim tapered profile.This type of tire is suitable for sports car operation because the design stiffens the tire and reduces tire deflection during high-speed cornering.However, this type of tire may provide slightly firmer ride quality.

The bead filler above the bead reinforces the sidewall and acts as a rim extender.Tire sidewalls are made from a blend of rubbers which absorbs shocks and impacts from road irregularities, prevents damage to the plies, and also contains antioxidants and other chemicals that are gradually released to the surface of the sidewall during the life of the tire.The cord plies surround both beads and extend around the inner surface of the tire to enable the tire to carry its load. The plies are molded into the sidewalls.Steel is the most common material in tire belts, although other belt materials such as polyester have been used to some extent.The bead filler above the bead reinforces the sidewall and acts as a rim extender.

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